Principle of carbon dating


17-Jul-2017 11:56

Vitruvius - De Architectura: The Ten Books on Architecture, Odometer 50 A.

1681 Papin - Safety Valve, Pressure Cooker, Steam Engine, Power Piston 1687 Newton - Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, Calculus, Laws of Motion, Gravity, Planetary Motions, Motion of Tides, Optical Prism, Spectrum of White Light, Reflecting Telescope, Cat-flap 1698 Savery - Steam Driven Water Pump 1700 Leibniz - German Academy of Sciences Founded 1701 Jethro Tull - Seed Drill, Mechanised Farming 1705 Hauksbee - Electroluminescent Glow Discharge Lamp 1709 Abraham Darby I - Iron Making at Coalbrookdale 1707 Papin, Leibniz - Steam Driven Water Pump 1712 Newcomen - Reciprocating Atmospheric Steam Engine 1713 Réaumur - Fibreglass, Thermometer, Temperature Scale 1714 Fahrenheit - Mercury Thermometer, Temperature Scale Harrison - Longitude, Marine Chronometer, Bimetallic Strip Thermostat, Clock and Watch Regulator Mechanisms 1725 Bouchon - Stored Program, Punched Paper Tape, Machine Automation 1728 Falcon - Punched Cards, Manufacturing Automation 1729 Gray - Electric Conduction 1730 Bird, Godfrey, Hadley, Newton - Octant, Sextant 1733 du Fay - Positive and Negative Charges Kay - Flying Shuttle de Moivre - Bell Curve (Normal Distribution) 1738 Bernoulli - Fluid Mechanics 1740 Huntsman - Crucible Steel at Sheffield 1744 de Vaucanson - Stored Program, Punched Cards, Machine Automation 1745 van Musschenbroek, Cunaeus, von Kleist - Leyden Jar 1746 Nollet - Electric Communications Robins - Whirling Arm Apparatus, Aerodynamic Drag 1747 Cavendish - Electric Potential, Electric Charge, Inverse Square Law Watson - Earth Return 1748 Watson - Glow Discharge, Fluorescent Light Nollet - Electroscope Euler - Mathematical Constant e, Euler's Trigonometrical Formulae, Turbine Equations Smeaton, da Borda, Burdin, Fourneyron, Boyden, Thomson, Francis, Girard, Pelton, Kaplan - Hydraulic Power, Water Turbines 1750 to 1850 The Industrial Revolution 1750 Nollet - Electrostatic Spraying Michell - Magnetic Induction, Inverse Square Law 1752 Dalibard - Lightning Experiments Franklin - Electrical Experiments Sulzer - Battery Tongue Test Mayer - Longitude Determination by Sextant, Lunar Distance Tables 1753 Morrison - Telegraph 1757 Adanson, Walsh - Electric Fish, Electric Shocks 1759 Aepinus - Mathematics of Electricity and Magnetism, Variable Capacitor Smeaton - Aerodynamic Lift Equation, Society of Civil Engineers 1761 Black - Latent Heat Brindley - Bridgewater canal, Harecastle Tunnel 1764 Kay, Hargreaves, Highs, Arkwright - Spinning Jenny Arkwright - Factory System (Textiles) 1765 Boulton - Factory System (Metalworking) Lunar Society of Birmingham Founded 1766 de Saussure - Electrometer Cavendish - Hydrogen 1767 Priestley - History of Electricity, Oxygen 1769 Watt - Steam Engine with Separate Condenser, Centrifugal Governor (Automatic Control System) 1770 Cugnot - Self Propelled Road Vehicle, Rotary Drive, Freewheel Mechanism 1771 Arkwright - Machine Powered Factory Scheele - Oxygen, Chlorine, Light Sensitive Silver Salts (Basis of Photographic Process) 1774 Le Sage - Electric Telegraph 1775 Volta - Perpetual Electrophorus Wilkinson - Precision Machine Tools Ketley - Building Societies 1779 Abraham Darby III - Iron Bridge at Coalbrookdale Crompton - Spinning Mule 1780 Pickard - Rotary Motion by Means of Flywheel and Crank 1782 Laplace - Integral Transform, Probability Theory 1783 Cort - Rolling Mill, Reverbatory Furnace, Puddling to Make Steel 1784 Cavendish - Chemical Composition of Water Mesmer - Animal Magnetism 1785 Coulomb - Inverse Square Law 1786 Galvani - Animal Electricity 1787 Charles, Gay Lussac - Gas Laws Fitch - Steam Powered Boat 1789 Lavoisier - Conservation of Mass, Elements 1790 Jefferson - Patent Laws Hopkins - First US Patent 1791 Richter - Stoichiometry, Law of Definite Proportions Barber - Gas Turbine Engine, Water Jet Propulsion 1792 Murdoch - Coal Gas 1794 Whitney - Cotton Gin 1795 Bramah - Hydraulic Press, Unpickable Lock 1797 von Humboldt - Galvanic Electricity Maudslay - Precision Machine Tools, Screw-Cutting Lathe, Surface Plates, Engineers Blue, Micrometer Whitworth - Firearms, Rifling 1798 Whitney - Interchangeable Components, Milling Machine 1799 Rumford - Equivalence of Thermal Energy and Mechanical Work, Founded the Royal Institution Cayley - Theory of Aeronautics, Manned Gliders, Artillery Shells, Caterpillar Tracks, Prosthetic Hand, Hot Air Engine, Automatic Brakes, Railway Signalling, Fire and Railway Safety Systems Lukin, Wouldhave - Self-righting Lifeboat 1800 Volta - Battery Nicholson, Carlisle - Electrolysis Herschel - Infrared Radiation 1801 Ritter - Ultra Violet Radiation Jacquard - Stored Program, Programmed Machine Control Gautherot - Rechargeable Battery 1802 Cruikshank - Electrodeposition, Electroplating Wollaston - Optical Polarisation, Wollaston Prism 1803 Ritter - Rechargeable Battery Dalton - Atomic Theory, Gas Laws 1804 Salvá - Electric Telegraph Trevithick - Steam Powered Road Vehicle 1805 Brugnatelli - Electroplating 1807 Young - Modulus of Elasticity, Wave Theory of Light Davy - Isolation of Elements by Electrolysis Fulton - Steam Boat Fourier - Heat Transfer, Fourier Transform Gauss - Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) 1808 Berzelius - Law of Definite Proportions, Chemical Notation, Atomic Masses Marc Isambard Brunel - Mass Production 1809 Davy - Carbon Arc Lamp 1810 1811 Avogadro - Molecular Weights Hypothesis (Avogadro's Law) 1812 von Sömmering - Electric Telegraph Zamboni - High Voltage "Dry" Battery, Electric Clock 1814 Fraunhofer - Fraunhofer Lines, Light Spectrum Analysis 1805 Brugnatelli - Electroplating 1816 Ronalds - Electric Telegraph Wollaston - Reserve Battery Stirling - Stirling "Hot Air" Engine, Regenerator 1819 Dulong, Petit - Specific Heat Capacity Law Rogers - Steamship Atlantic Crossing 1820 Øersted - Magnetism and Electricity Ampère - Magnetic Forces, Electric Potential Biot, Savart - Magnetic Fields Schweigger - Galvanometer Arago - Electromagnet Hare - Spiral Wound Electrodes 1821 Seebeck - Thermoelectric Effect Faraday - Electric Motor 1822 Barlow - Electric Motor Isambard Kingdom Brunel - Railways, Iron Ships 1823 Döbereiner - Catalysis 1824 Berzelius - Silicon Isolated Carnot - Heat Engine Theory, Second Law of Thermodynamics 1825 Ampère - Magnetic Field Theory Sturgeon - Electromagnet Stephenson - Railways Marc Isambard Brunel, Lord Cochrane - Tunneling Shield, Thames Tunnel 1826 Nobili, Melloni - Astatic Galvanometer, Thermoelectric Battery Poggendorff - Mirror Galvanometer Krupp - Cast Steel, Steel Cannons, Weldless Steel Railway Tyre, Artillery Shells, Employee Social Benefits 1827 Ohm - Ohm's Law Brown - Brownian Motion 1828 Berzelius - Atomic Weights Green - Mathematical Analysis of Electricity and Magnetism Dutrochet - Osmosis Jedlik - Electric Motor, Commutator, Self Excited Dynamo Neilson - Hot Blast Furnace 1829 Nobili, Melloni - Thermopile Radiant Heat Measurement Becquerel - Constant Current Cell 1830 Ure - Bi-metal Thermostat Henry - Electromagnetic Induction 1831 Faraday - Solenoid, Induction Coil, Transformer, Dynamo, Homopolar Machine Henry - Electric Telegraph Henry - Relay 1832 Schilling - Electric Telegraph Pixii - Magneto, Direct Current Dynamo 1833 Faraday - Laws of Electrolysis Christie - Wheatstone Bridge Weber, Gauss - Magnetic Fields, Electric Telegraph Lenz - Induced Current Law Graham - Diffusion Law Isambard Kingdom Brunel - Gaz Engine Ericsson - Hot Air Engine, Ericsson Cycle, Screw Propeller, USS Monitor 1834 Peltier - Thermo-cooling Effect Clapeyron - Heat Engine Theory, Thermodynamics 1835 Gauss - Electric Field Theory, Normal Probability Distribution Morse - Electric Telegraph, Morse Code Lindsay - Electric Arc Welding, Electric Lamp 1836 Daniell - Battery, Non-Polarising Cell Berzelius - Catalysts Paris - Electric Light Installation Dubus-Bonnel - Woven Fibreglass Callan - Induction Coil, Maynooth Battery 1837 Faraday - Capacitor Theory Davenport - Electric Motor Cooke, Wheatstone - Electric Telegraph Ettrick, Henley - Insulated Electrical Wire Mc Gauley, Page - Interrupter, Self-Acting Circuit Breaker 1838 Davidson - Switched Reluctance DC Motor, Electric Locomotive Steinheil - Earth(Ground) Return Single Wire Signalling 1839 Steinheil - Electric Clock Grove - Fuel Cell Faraday - Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Generator Jacobi - Power Transfer Theorem, Load Matching, Electric Boat, Electroplating, Electroforming Becquerel - Photovoltaic Effect Simon - Polystyrene 1840 Joule - Electric Heating (Joule's) Law, First Law of Thermodynamics Elkingtons - Electroplating Newall - Cable Making Airy - Feedback, Closed Loop Systems Armstrong - Hydro-Electric Generator 1841 Bunsen - Carbon Zinc Cell, Spectroscopy Bain - Electric Clock, Earth Battery 1842 Doppler - Doppler Effect 1843 Bain - Image Scanning, Fax Machine, Punched Paper Tape, Telegraph Improvements Ada Lovelace, Babbage - Computer Programming, Stored Program, Binary Numbers, Analytical Engine Wheatstone - Rheostat Hancock, Goodyear - Vulcanisation of Rubber du Bois Reymond - Electrophysiology, Nerve Impulses 1845 Faraday - Magneto-Optic Effect Kirchhoff - Network Theory, Speed of Light, Spectroscopy, Composition of the Sun and Stars Armstrong - Hydraulic Machinery, Armaments, Guns, Rifling, Explosive Shells, Hydroelectric Scheme 1846 Smithson - Smithsonian Institution Faraday - Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism Semyonov - Oil Wells, Petroleum Industry 1847 Brunel - Atmospheric Railway 1848 Kelvin - Absolute Temperature 1849 Lincoln, President Abraham - Inflatable Bouyancy Chamber (US Patent 6469) Fizeau - Speed of Light, Red Shift Bourdon - Pressure Gauge 1850 Clausius - Mechanical Theory of Heat Mirand - Trembling Electric Bell 1851 Kelvin - Second Law of Thermodynamics Ruhmkorff - High Voltage Induction Coil Foucault - Foucault's Pedulum, Rotation of the Earth, Gyroscopes Singer - Sewing Machine, Hire Purchase Agreements Whitworth - British Standard Screw Threads (BSW), Bench Micrometer, Whitworth Rifle, Polygonal Rifling, Interchangeable Parts, Twist Drill 1852 Frankland - Chemical Bonds, Valency Joule, Thomson - Gas Laws, Vapour Compression Refrigeration Channing, Farmer - Automatic Fire Alarm System, Diplex Telegraphy 1853 Pope - Electric Burglar Alarm Gintl - Duplex Telegraphy Rankine - Potential Energy Kelvin - RLC Circuit Theory 1854 Bourseul - Electrical Transmission of Sound Geissler - Vacuum Tubes, Fluorescent Light Boole - Boolean Logic Tyndall - Light Pipe, Fibre Optics Stenhouse - Gas Mask Barsanti, Matteucci - Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engine 1855 Parkes - Plastic, Celluloid Bessemer - Bessemer Converter, Steel Making, Ormolu 1856 Muchet Bessemer Process, Tungsten Steel, Steel Rails Kelvin - Dynamic Theory of Electricity and Magnetism, Strain Gauge 1857 Kelvin - Magneto Resistance Wheatstone - Punched Paper Tape 1858 Field, Whitehouse, Kelvin, Wimshurst, Brunel - Transatlantic Telegraph Cable, Mirror Galvanometer Plücker, Hittorf - Cathode Rays, Fluorescent Lights Couper, Kekulé - Organic Chemistry, Linking Carbon Atoms Holmes - Electric Burglar Alarm Cannizzaro - Atomic and Molecular Weights 1859 Rankine - Thermodynamic Cycles Carré - Gas Absorption Refrigeration Darwin - The Origin of Species, Theory of Evolution 1860 Russell, Waddell and Majors - US Pony Express Lenoir - Internal Combustion Engine, Spark Ignition, Lenoir Cycle Reithmann - Four Stroke Engine Planté - Lead Acid Rechargeable Battery Mouchout - Solar Powered Motor Maxwell - Primary Colours, Colour Photography 1861 Reis - Telephone Meucci - Telephone Beau de Rochas - Four Stroke Engine 1862 Otto - Spark Ignition Four Stroke Engine, Otto Cycle 1863 Alkali Works Act - Environmental Legislation Davis - Pilot Plants, Safety Practices Jedlik - Multiplying Capacitor Battery (High Voltage Generator) Sorby - Metallography, Metallurgy 1864 Maxwell - Electromagnetic Waves Elkington - Electrolytic Refining 1865 Clausius - Entropy ITU - International Telecommunications Union Established Siemens, Martin - Open Hearth Steel Production 1866 Varley, Siemens, Wheatstone, Hjorth, Jedlik - Dynamo, Electromagnetic Armature 1867 Siemens - Reversibility of Dynamo Kelvin - Water Powered Electrostatic Generator Nobel - Dynamite, Gelignite, Nitroglycerine, Detonators, Nobel Prizes Scholes, Glidden, Soule - Typewriter 1868 Leclanché - Zinc Carbon Wet Cell Maxwell - Feedback Control Systems Farcot - Servomechanisms 1869 Hittorf - Ion Migration, Transport Number Meyer, Mendeleyef - Periodic Table of Elements Berges - Hydropower, "White Coal" Tyndall - Explanation of Blue Sky 1870 Hyatt - Plastic, Celluloid Player - Fibreglass 1870's Boltzmann - Statistical Mechanics, Thermodynamic Entropy 1871 Weber - Atomic Structure, Current Flow Steiner - Electric Shock Treatment Tyndall - Fireman's Respirator, Gas Mask 1872 Baumann - PVC, Polyvinyl Chloride Loomis - Radio Clark - Standard Cell Stearns - Duplex Telegraphy 1872 Brayton - Continuous Combustion Engine, Brayton (Thermodynamic) Cycle 1873 Maxwell - Electromagnetic Radiation Theory, Maxwell's Equations Gramme, Fontaine - Commutators, DC Machines, Electrical Power Transmission Davidson - Electric Vehicle May, Smith - Photoconductivity van der Waals - Gas Laws, Intermolecular Forces 1874 Clamond - Thermo-electric Battery Edison - Quadruplex Telegraph Baudot - Digital Encoding, Multiplexer Braun - Crystal Rectifier Stoney - Electron Salomons - Electric Car 1875 Rowland - Current and Charge Flow 1876 Bell, Gray - Telephone Thomas - "Basic" Bessemer Process 1877 Hughes, Edison, Berliner, Hunnings, Blake - Carbon Microphone Adams, Day - Photo-electric Effect Siemens - Loudspeaker 1878 Gramme, Fontaine - Electric Alternator Gibbs - Chemical Thermodynamics, Free Energy Concept, Vector Analysis Niaudet - Battery Industry Growth, 100 Battery Types, Recycling Redmond - Television de Paiva - Electric Telescope Langley - Bolometer Swan - Incandescent Electric Light Schuckert - Electrical Power Generation by Steam Armstrong - Hydro-Electric Power Generation de Laval - Impulse Steam Turbine 1879 Edison, Swan and Others - Incandescent Electric Light Hall - Magnetic Field Strength Sensors Crookes - Cathode Ray Tube, Radiometer Siemens Halske - Electric Railway Stefan - Black Body Radiation Hughes - Induction Balance, Metal Detector, Radio Waves, Electromagnetic Radiation 1880 Curie - Piezo-electricity Fauré - Lead Acid Battery Formation, Pasted Plates Hammesfahr - Fibreglass Cloth 1881 Thiebaut - Leclanché Cell Improvements Burr, Scott - Flashlight (Torch) Touvé - Electric Car International Electric Congress - Electrical Units, Volt, Ohm, Ampere Taylor - Time and Motion Study, Scientific Management Smith, Phelps, Edison, Woods - Induction Telegraph, Mobile Communications 1882 d'Arsonval - Moving Coil Galvanometer Tesla - Rotating Field Principle, 2 Phase Induction Motor Lalande, Chaperon - Rechargeable Alkaline Cells Wimshurst - Electrostatic Generator Ayrton, Perry - Electric Tricycle, Electric Lights Wheeler, Seely - Domestic Electrical Appliances Edison - DC Electricity Generating Station Elmer - Hydraulic Turbine Hammer - Thermionic Emission Hopkinson - Three Wire DC Electricity Generation and Distribution, DC Load Balancing, AC Generator Synchronisation 1883 Edison - Electric Fuse Fritts - Photo-voltaic Module Fitz Gerald - Radio Waves 1884 Heaviside - Coaxial Cable, Vector Calculus, Distortionless Transmission Lines, Heaviside-Kennelly Layer Parsons - Steam Turbines Renard - Zinc Chlorine Flow Battery Arrhenius - Galvanic Conductivity in Electrolytes, Ion Dissociation, Chemical Reaction Rates, Greenhouse Effect Le Chatelier - Chemical Equilibrium Nipkow - Television System, Image Raster Scanning 1885 Goldstein - Canal Rays Ferraris - Induction Motor, Rotating Magnetic Field, Alternator Benardos, Olszewski - Electric Arc Welder Bláthy, Déri, Zipernowsky - High Voltage AC Distribution System, Transformer, AC Watt Hour Meter Benz - Automobile 1886 Stanley - Transformer Gassner - Carbon Zinc Dry Cell Hall, Héroult - Electrolytic Extraction of Aluminium Akroyd-Stuart - Compression Ignition Engine 1887 Kelvin - Electrostatic Voltmeter Arrhenius - Chemical Reaction Rates Thomson - Electric Resistance Welding Tesla - Polyphase Induction Motors and Generators, AC Distribution System Southwick - Execution by Electric Chair Ferranti - AC Distribution System, AC Electricity Generating Station, Induction Heating Waller - Electrocardiogram Boys - Fibreglass Hertz - Photoelectric Effect 1888 Hertz - Radio Waves Hallwachs - Photoelectric Effect Peral, Zede, Drzewiecki - Electric Submarines Reinitzer - Liquid Crystal Effect Strowger - Automatic Telephone Exchange Hayes - Telephone Exchange Central Battery Power 1889 Thomson - Recording Wattmeter Dobrovolski - Squirrel Cage Induction Motor, Three Phase Electricity Transmission Westinghouse - Hydroelectric AC Generating and Distribution System Nernst - Galvanic Cell Theory, Enthalpy, Third Law of Thermodynamics 1890 Ewing - Hysteresis Tesla - High Frequency Multi-pole Rotary Generator 1891 Steinmetz - Hysteresis Law, AC Circuit Analysis, Phasors Ward Leonard - Variable Speed Control Wenström - Three Phase Electrical Power Systems Hertz, Lenard - Cathode Rays Branly - Coherer (Radio Wave Detector) Varley - Lightning Bridge Lilienthal - Hang Gliders, Theories of Flight 1892 Weston - Standard Cell, Electric Instruments Stubblefield - Ground Battery, Radio Lorentz - Electrodynamics, Electromagnetic Fields, Electromagnetic Forces 1893 Elster, Geitel - Photocell Westinghouse - End of the Current Wars Chanute - Progress in Flying Machines Diesel - Compression Ignition Engine, Diesel Cycle 1894 Lodge, Muirhead - Radio Signal Transmission 1895 Röntgen - X-ray Effect Curie - Paramagnetism, Diamagnetism, Curie Point Popov - Radio Waves, Antennas 1896 Marconi - Radio Telegraphy Jacques - Carbon Battery Becquerel - Radioactivity Misell - Flashlight (Torch), D Cells Dowsing - Automobile Self-Starter, Integrated Starter Generator Langley - Aeronautical Theory 1897 Thomson - Electron Braun - Oscilloscope Darraq - Regenerative Braking Tsiolkovsky - Theory of Rocket Motion, Multi-Stage Rockets, Regenerative Cooling Peukert - Available Battery Capacity 1898 Poulsen - Magnetic Recording and Playback Apparatus Wien - Proton Lodge - Radio Tuning Curie - Radioactivity, Radium 1899 Duell - Patents Rutherford, Soddy - Alpha Rays, Beta Rays Villard - Gamma Rays Jungner - Nickel Cadmium Rechargeable Cells Jénatzy - Electric Vehicle, Land Speed Record Porsche - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Pupin - Inductive Loading Coils 1900 Edison - Nickel Iron Battery Planck - Quantum Theory Drude - Electrical Conduction Pieper - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Holland - Dual Propulsion Submarine 1901 Michaelowski - Nickel Zinc Battery 1902 Hewitt - Mercury Arc Rectifier USA - Electricity Market Penetration 1903 Einthoven - Electrocardiograph Wright Brothers - Powered flight Soddy, Rutherford - Radioactivity, Spontaneous Atomic Disintegration Hanson - Flexible Printed Circuits Krieger - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Tswett - Chromatography Murray - Teleprinter 1904 Fleming - Diode Rectifier, Potentiometer Hülsmeyer - Radar Hubbell - Mains Plug and Socket Conti - Geothermal Power Plant 1905 Einstein - Quantum Theory, Avogadro's Number, Brownian Motion, Speed of Light, E = mc Tafel - Battery Theory Piper - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Riker, Ford - Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Langévin - Magnetism, Magnetic Properties 1906 Fessenden - Broadcast Radio, Amplitude Modulation (AM) Alexanderson - High Frequency Multi-pole Rotary Generator Pickard, Dunwoody - Crystal Detector, Cat's Whisker 1907 Baekeland - Thermosetting Plastic de Forest - Triode Round - Light Emitting Diode (LED) Weiss - Magnetic Domains, Paramagnetism, Diamagnetism, Ferromagnetism Simon - Silk Screen Printing Héroult - Electric Arc Furnace 1908 Voith - Pumped Storage Brandenberger - Cellophane 1909 Sørensen - p H Acidity/Alkalinity Measure Haber, Bosch - Haber Process, Nitrogen Fixation, Ammonia, Chemical Warfare Ostwald - Ostwald Process, Nitric Acid Production Beautey - Hermetically Sealed Wet Battery 1910 Millikan - Electron Charge Wulf, Hess - Cosmic Rays, Cosmic Radiatiion Coolidge - Tungsten Filament Light Bulb Claude - Neon Lights 1911 Onnes, Holst - Superconductivity Rutherford - Atomic Structure Campbell Swinton - Electronic Television 1912 Thomson, Soddy - Isotopes, Mass Spectromete Haynes, Brierley, Strauss, Maurer - Stainless Steel Sauveur - Metallography, Metallurgy, Heat Treatment Kettering - Automobile Electric Starter Bragg - X-ray Diffraction, X-ray Crystallography von Laue - X-ray Theory Wilson - Cloud Chamber Armstrong - Regenerative Radio Receiver, Positive Feedback Sarnoff - Monitoring Titanic SOS Signals Leavitt - Cepheid Star Period-Luminosity Relation, Standard Candles 1913 Bohr - Quantum Mechanics, Atomic Structure Moseley - Atomic Number, Periodic Table Berry, Littlefield, Bassist - Printed Circuits Ford - Moving Conveyor Line, Paced Assembly Line 1914 Millikan - Planck's Constant Determination Slipher - Red Shifted Galaxies 1915 Benedicks - Germanium Crystal Rectifier Willard - Automotive SLI Batteries Fery - Air Depolarising, Zinc-Air Battery Colpitts - Push-Pull Amplifier Hartley, Colpitts - Variable Frequency Oscillators Carson - Single Sideband Suppressed Carrier Modulation, Frequency Division Multiplexing Shapley - Stellar Distance Estimation, Cosmic Dimensions 1916 Lewis - Chemical Bonding, Ionic Bonding Sommerfeld - Atomic Structure, Quantum States Kondratyuk - Interplanetary Space Travel Northrup - High Frequency Induction Heating Czochralski - Single Crystal Growth 1917 Campbell, Wagner - Passive Electric Wave Filters Rutherford - Splits Atom, Proton 1918 Armstrong, Schottky - Superheterodyne Radio Tuner Scherbius, Koch - Enigma Encription Schoop - Printed Circuits 1919 Eccles, Jordan - Flip Flop Eguchi - Electrets Schottky - Tetrode Valve Nicholson - Crystal Oscillator 1920 KDKA - First Commercial Radio Broadcasts Aston - Nuclear Mass Defect, Binding Energy Eddington - Sun's Energy Source Hull - Magnetron 1921 UK - Electricity Market Penetration Cady - Crystal Controlled Oscillator Midgley - Anti-knock Fuel (Tetraethyl Lead), Refrigerants (Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)) 1920's Diesel Electric Locomotives, Electric Drives 1922 BBC - Public Radio Broadcasting Losev - Light Emitting Diode (LED), Solid State Amplifier, Negative Resistance Amplifier Minorsky - Feedback Control Systems, PID (3 Term) Controller Staudinger, Simon - Theory of Polymers, Polystyrene von Platen, Munters - Gas Absorption Refrigerator Einstein, Szilard - Refrigerator 1923 Marconi Company - Hearing Aid Dodge, Romig - Sampling Inspection Tables, AOQL Brønsted, Lowry, Lewis - Acids and Bases Pierce - "Pierce" Crystal Controlled Oscillator 1924 Berger - Encephalograph de Broglie - Wave Particle Duality Rice, Kellogg - Moving Coil Loudspeaker Schottky, Gerlach - Ribbon Microphone Appleton - Ionosphere, Appleton Layer, Radar Kapitza - Bipolar Battery, Suprfluidity, Cryogenics Kapitza, Bernal - Zone Refining 1925 Maxfield, Harrison - Electrical Sound Recording Bush - Analogue Computer Pauli - Exclusion Principle, Electron Spin, Beta Decay, Neutrino Heisenberg - Quantum Theory, Matrix Mechanics Ducas - Printed Circuits 1926 Parolini, Edison - Printed Circuits Semon - PVC, Plasticisers Eckert, Ziegler - Injection Moulding Machine Schrödinger - Quantum Wave Mechanics, Wave Equation Born - Quantum State Probability Lilienfeld - Field Effect Transistor Goddard - Liquid Fuelled Rockets, 3 Axis Flight Controls Loomis - Tuxedo Park Laboratory, MIT Radiation Laboratory Ridenour - MIT Radiation Lab Series Publications 1927 Heisenberg - Uncertainty Principle Thomson, Davisson - Wave Nature of the Electron Hund - Quantum Tunneling USA - Battery Costs Chauvin Arnoux - Multimeter Black - Feedback Control Theory, Distortion Control Seymour - Flexible Printed Circuits Farnsworth - All Electronic Television System Marrison, Horton - Quartz Clock, Crystal Controlled Oscillator Haldane - Heat Pump 1928 Dirac - Electron Magnetic Spin Properties, Anti-particles, Quantum Electrodynamics, QED, Positron Hartley - Signal Information Content, Information Transmission Rates Nyquist - Communications, Sampling Theory Johnson - Thermal Noise (Johnson Noise) Potocnik - Geostationary Satellites Raman - Raman Scattering 1929 Zworykin - Television Picture Tube Hubble - Big Bang, Expanding Universe, Hubble's Law 1930 Butler, Volmer - Battery Kinetic Electrochemistry Gusseff, Lazarenko - Electro-chemical Machining, Electro-discharge Machining Lilienfeld - Electrolytic Capacitors Whittle - Jet Engine 1931 Carothers - Neoprene, Nylon Fischar - Metal Detector Drumm - Traction Battery de Bellescise - Phase Locked Loop (PLL), Radio Tuning Circuits, Automatic Frequency Control (AFC) Blumlein - Stereo Sound 1932 Knoll, Ruska - Transmission Electron Microscope Bacon - Alkaline Fuel Cell Cockcroft, Walton - Proton Accelerator, Split the Atom, E = mc Verification Lawrence - Cyclotron Particle Accelerator Chadwick - Isolates the Neutron Szilard - Chain Reaction, Critical Mass, Atom Bomb Anderson - Positron, Elementary Particles Tamm - Phonons Heise, Schumacher - Zinc Air Battery Schlecht, Ackermann - Sintered Pole Plates Nyquist - Feedback Control Theory, Stability Control Kleist, Slayter - Fibreglass 1933 Dassler - Recombinant Batteries Meissner, Ochsenfeld - Superconductor Magnetic Properties First Injection Moulded Polystyrene Products Gibson, Fawcett - Polyethylene Armstrong- Frequency Modulation (FM) Franz - Flexible Printed Circuits 1934 Sonneberg - Gelled Cell Lead Acid Batteries Chauvin Arnoux - Current Measuring Clamp 1935 Watson-Watt - Radar, IFF (Identification - Friend or Foe), RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) Heil - Insulated Gate Field Effect Transistor (IGFET), Klystron, Air Motion Transformer Varian - Klystron (1937) 1930's Ampoule Batteries 1936 Ellis - Polyester Resin 1937 Shannon - Information Theory, Digital Technology, Boolean Logic Operations Reeves - Pulse Code Modulation (PCM), Digital Circuits Dippy - Radio Navigation Sargrove - Printed Circuits 1938 Bode - Control System Stability Forrester, Everett - Real-Time Operating Systems, Parallel Processing, Ferrite Core Memory Gross - Walkie-Talkie, Mobile Radio Meitner, Hahn, Strassmann - Nuclear Fission, Splitting the Atom Olsen - Minicomputers Plunkett - PTFE UK - Electricity Market Penetration Sola - Constant Voltage Transformer (CVT) Schottky - Schottky Diode, Semiconductor Theory Zuse - Programmable Digital Computer, High Level Language 1939 I. Farbenindustrie - Epoxy Resin, Composites Bethe - Explanation of Sun's Source of Energy UK - Electricity Market Penetration 1940 Randall, Boot - Cavity Magnetron Frisch, Peierls - Atomic Bomb Tizard - Technology Transfer UK-US Loomis, Pierce, Dippy - LORAN 1941 André - Silver Oxide Zinc Battery Ohl - P-N Junction, Semiconductors, Silicon Solar Cell Adams - Water Activated Battery Ransburg - Electrostatic Paint Spraying Centralab - Thick Film Circuits 1942 Fermi - Nuclear Chain Reaction Coover - Superglue Hanford, Holmes - Polyurethane Hedy Lamarr, Antheil - Frequency Hopping Secure Communications, Spread Spectrum, Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Kompfner - Travelling Wave Tube (TWT) 1943 Eisler - Printed Circuit Board 1944 German Army, Schmidt, Gosslau, Lüsser - V-1 Cruise Missile German Luftwaffe, Dornberger, von Braun - V-2 Ballistic Missile (Rocket) Ruben, Mallory - Mercuric Oxide Batteries Brenner, Riddel, Pessel - Electroless Plating 1945 Clarke - Geostationary Communications Satellites Ragazzini, Philbrick - Operational Amplifier, Analogue Circuits Bush - Memex (Hypertext) Mc Millan, Veksler - Synchrotron 1946 Bloch, Purcell - Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spencer - Microwave Oven Philips - Ceramic Magnets 1947 Bardeen, Brattain, Shockley - Transistor Young, Ring - Cellular Communications Neumann - Battery Seals Piezoelectric Ceramic Gramophone Needle Gabor - Holography Parsons - Numerically Controlled Machine Tools Miller - Combustion Engine Efficiency Improvements Yeager, Woods, Stack, Diehl, Kotchner - Supersonic Aircraft Libby - Radiocarbon Dating 1948 Bell Labs - Transistor Announcement Mataré, Welker - Transistron, The French Transistor Teal, Little - Single Crystal Growth Teal, Sparks - Grown Junction Transistor Teal, Buehler - Silicon Crystal Growth, Silicon Diodes Shannon - Mathematical Theory of Communications, Information Entropy, Sampling Theory, Channel Capacity Tradeoffs Motor, Magnetic Levitation, Maglev Trains Durrer - Basic Oxygen Steel Making 1949 Woodland, Silver - Bar Code System Forrester - Magnetic Core Random Access Memory (RAM) Danko, Abramson - Dip Soldering 1950 Shockley - Electrons and Holes Shockley - Four Layer Diode, Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) Nishizawa - PIN Diode Oerlikon - Flywheel Battery Dreyer - LCD Polarisers Deming - Total Quality Management, TQM Martin - Gas Chromatography 1951 Wilkes, Wheeler & Gill - Assembly Language Programming Hopper - Compiler Saby - Alloy Junction Transistor Thornton - Transistor Jet Etching Technique, Surface Barrier Transistor Ford - Automatic Assembly, Production Automation Ohmart - Nuclear Batteries, Direct Energy Conversion Nuclear Power Plants Sakharov, Tamm - Tokamak, Thermonuclear Fusion 1952 Lip - Electric Watch Transistor Production Pfann - Zone Refining Theuerer - Float Zone Refining Zener - Zener Diode Fuller - Semiconductor Diffusion Doping Welker - Gallium Arsenide (Ga As) Fukui - Molecular Orbitals Dummer - Integrated Circuit Oatley - Scanning Electron Microscope Eccles, Hodgkin, Huxley - Nerve Impulse Transmission 1953 Microtone, Maico, Unex, Radioear - Transistor Hearing Aid with Button Cell Mataré, Welker - Transistor Radio Kay - Digital Voltmeter (DVM) Fox - Polycarbonate 1954 Borg-Warner - ABS Polymers Mc Intire - Styrofoam Shockley, Ohl - Ion Implantation Lee - Diffused Base Germanium Mesa Transistor Chapin, Fuller, Pearson - Silicon Solar Cell Tanenbaum - Diffused Base Silicon Mesa Transistor Adcock, Teal - Silicon Transistor Koch - Transistor Radio Backus - Fortran Teal - Silicon Transistors Devol, Engleberger - Industrial Robots 1955 Grubb - Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Johnson - Computer Hard Disk USS Nautilus - Nuclear Powered Submarine Polley - Wireless (Optical) TV Remote Control Adler - Ultrasonic TV Remote Control Essen, Parry - Caesium Atomic Clock Wang - Magnetic Core Computer Memory, Random Access Memory (RAM) Kapany - Fibre Optics Uhlir, Bakanowski - Varactor Diode or Varicap Shockley - Four Layer Diode, Shockley Diode Lawson - Conditions for Nuclear Fusion Hastings - Mathematical Approximations 1956 Bell Labs, British Post Office - Trans Atlantic Telephone Cable (TAT 1) Hall, Gutzwiller - Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR), Thyristor 1957 Korolev - Sputnik 1 and 2, Artificial Earth Satellite, Soviet Space Programme, First Animal in Space Esaki - Tunnel Diode, Negative Resistance, Electron Tunneling Bardeen, Cooper, Schreiffer - BCS Theory, Superconductivity Kouwenhoven - Defibrillator Hamilton Watch - Electric Watches Jache - Gel VRLA battery Hanratty - Numerical Control, CAD/CAM Frosch, Derrick - Silicon Dioxide Masking Andrus, Bond - Photolithography Mc Carthy, Bemer - Computer Time-Sharing, Operating Systems 1958 Niedrach - PEM Fuel Cells, Gemini Spacecraft Hoerni - Transistors, Planar Process Lehovec - Integrated Circuit, Dielectric Isolation Kilby, Noyce - Integrated Circuits Schawlow, Townes, Gould - Laser Van Allen - Radiation Belt, Explorer 1 Satellite 1959 Urry - Alkaline Primary Battery Ihrig - Fuel Cell Powered Vehicle Feynman - Nanotechnology Volder - CORDIC Mathematical Approximations 1960 Maiman - Laser Pope, Kallmann - Organic Electroluminescence, Organic Semiconductors Kahng, Atalla - Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) Sah - MOSFET Hofstein, Heiman - Metal Oxide Semiconductor Integrated Circuit, MOS IC Loor, Christensen, Kleimack, Theurer, Ross - Epitaxial Deposition Cho, Arthur - Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) Greatbatch - Heart Pacemaker, Lithium Primary Battery Sutherland - Sketchpad, CAD Hetzel, Bennett - Electronic Tuning Fork Watch Getting, Parkinson, Easton - Global Positioning System (GPS), Satellite Navigation System 1960's Zinc Air Button Cells Bacon - Alkaline Fuel Cells, Apollo Spacecraft 1961 US Department of Energy - Nuclear Batteries Riley - Cordless Power Tools UK - Electricity Market Penetration Noyce - Resistor Transistor Logic (RTL) Thomson - Multiple Input Emitter Transistor, Transistor Transistor Logic (TTL) Baker - Diode Transistor Logic (DTL) Buie, Longo - Transistor Transistor Logic (TTL) Aroot - Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL) Wanlass, Sah - Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Lin - Bipolar CMOS (Bi CMOS) Taylor - Computer Networks, Arpanet, Xerox PARC Labs Kalman - Predictive Control Systems 1962 Philbrick - Operational Amplifiers (Op-amps) Widlar, Talbert - Operational Amplifiers (Op-amps), Linear Circuits Holonyak - Light Emitting Diode Josephson - Superconducting Materials, Magnetic Field Sensor Carson - Silent Spring, Environmental Protection Pierce, Early, Kompfner, O'Neill - Telstar 1, Communications Satellite Charyk - COMSAT formed Licklider - "Intergalactic Computer Network" (Internet Concept) 1963 Cormack, Hounsfield - Computerised Axial Tomography, CAT Scanning Gunn - Gunn Diode Rosen, Williams, Hudspeth, Mendel - Syncom Geosynchronous Satellite, Geostationary Satellite 1964 Baran, Davies - Packet Switching, Internet Weitbrecht, Marsters, Saks - Teletypewriter (TTY), Acoustic Coupler Modem Kemeny, Kurtz - BASIC Programming Language Geulia - Super Flywheel Battery Henry-Baudot - Printed Circuit (Pancake) Motor Bitzer, Slottow, Wilson - Flat Panel Plasma Display Higgs - Higgs Field, Higgs Boson 1965 Zadeh - Fuzzy Logic Russell - Optical Disk System, Compact Disk, CD ROM Cooley, Tukey - Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Rosen - Intelsat 1 (Early Bird), Communications Satellite Hilton, Korolev - Highly Elliptical Orbits (HEO), Molniya Satellite, Nationwide Satellite Television Broadcasts Moore - Moore's Law, Integrated Circuits Johnston, De Loach, Cohen - IMPATT Diode Nelson - Hypertext 1966 Longo - Static Random Access Memory (SRAM), TTL Memory Dennard - Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) Weber, Kummer - Sodium Sulphur Battery CODATA - Physical Constants Kao, Hockham - Fibre Optic Communications de Gaulle - Rance Tidal Energy Scheme 1967 Gates (Corporation)- Sealed Lead Acid (SLA) Battery Beccu - Nickel Metal Hydride (NIMH) Battery Kahng, Sze - Non-Volatile Memory, Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EPROM) Thornley, Hatzakis - Electron Beam Lithography Walker, Koford, Jones - Micromosaic, Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC's) Engelbart - Computer Mouse, Graphical User Interface (GUI), Hypertext, Video Conferencing 1968 Carter - Carterfone Judgement, Telecoms Deregulation Heilmeier - Liquid Crystal Display Knuth - The Art of Programming Kummer, Weber - AMTEC Direct Energy Conversion Rosen - De-spun Satellite Antenna 1969 Armstrong, Aldrin First men on the Moon, Collins Apollo 11 Captain Draper, Hall - Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC), Moon Landing Fergason - Twisted Nematic Field Effect, LCD Smith, Boyle - Charge Coupled Device Nakamura - Quartz Wristwatch Taylor, Roberts - ARPANet, Linked Computers 1970 Gray - LCD Materials Maurer, Keck, Schultz, Zimar - Low Loss Fibre Optic Cable Regitz, Karp, Hoff, Rowe, Abbott, Vadasz, Reed - Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) Chua - Static Random Access Memory (DRAM) Frohman - Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EPROM), OTP EPROM Joel - Cellular Phone Handoff System Abramson - ALOHAnet, Local Area Networks (LANs) 1971 Fagin, Hoff, Mazor - Single Chip Microprocessor Shugart - Computer Floppy Disk System Engel, Frenkiel, Gladden, Parelman - Cellular Communications System Sampson - Gamma Electric Cell, Nuclear Battery Tomlinson - Internet Email 1972 Sodium Sulphur Battery Tested Richie, Thompson - C Programming Language Sinclair - Pocket Calculator Chauvin Arnoux - Digital Multimeter 1973 Cooper - Portable Cell Phone, Cellular Base Station Cerf, Kahn - TCP/IP Internet Protocol Metcalfe, Boggs - Ethernet Cardullo, Walton - RFID Tags (Radio Frequency Identification) Projection Printing (Photolithography) 1974 Isley, Endres, Johnston, Marble, Senechal - 3 Axis Satellite Stabilisation, RF Inteferometer, Star Tracker, ATS-6 Experimental Direct TV Broadcast Satellite (DBS) Werbos - Neural Networks Mc Ginniss, Corry, Proctor - Organic Semiconductors, Conductive Polymers 1970s VRLA Battery Development 1975 Dunlop, Giner, van Ommering, Stockel - Nickel Hydrogen Battery Roberts - Personal Computer Gates (Bill), Allen - BASIC Interpreter, Microsoft, MS-DOS, Windows Operating System 1976 Kildall - Personal Computer Disk Operating System (DOS) Jobs, Wozniak - Apple Personal Computer Ungerboek - Forward Error Correction, Trellis Code Modulation Diffie, Hellman - Shared Key Encryption Ellis, Cocks, Williamson - Public Key Encryption Rivest, Shamir, Adleman - Public Key Encryption 1977 AT&T and Bell Labs - Cellular Phone System Heeger, Mac Diarmid, Shirakawa - Conductive Polymers Damadian - Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI Scanning Birkner, Chua - Programmable Logic Device (PLD) Hayes, Heatherington - PC Modem 1978 Christensen, Suess - Bulletin Board System (BBS) Jennings - Fido Net E. Kraftwerk - Compressed Air Energy Storage Cooper, Littauer - Metal-Air Batteries, Aluminium-Air Batteries Step and Repeat Photolithography Breedlove, Wiggins, Frantz - Digital Signal Processor (DSP), Speak and Spell 1979 Goodenough - Lithium Ion Rechargeable Cell Bricklin - Spreadsheet 1980 UK Atomic Energy Commission - Zebra Battery AGM Lead Acid Battery Baliga - Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor Mead, Conway - Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits, (VLSI) Ford Aerospace - Commercal Direct to Home Television, Direct Broadcast Satellite TV (DBS) 1981 Binnig, Rohrer - Scanning Tunneling Microscope Drexler - Nanotechnology Mac Cready - Photovoltaic Powered Airplane 1982 Solar One, Thermal Power Plant Petersen - MEMS, NEMS, Silicon Machining, Micro-Electromechanical Components 1983 Jobs - Graphical User Interface, (GUI) Hall - 3D Printing, Stereo Lithography, Rapid Prototyping 1984 Masuoka - Flash Memory, Electrically-Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM) Freeman - Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) 1985 Curl, Kroto, Smalley - Buckminsterfullerenes Skil - Cordless Power Tool 1980s Sealed VRLA Batteries Commercialised 1986 Ovshinsky - Nickel Metal Hydride Battery Developments Binnig, Rohrer - Atomic Force Microscope Hitachi - Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage Bednorz, Müller - High Temperature Superconductors Smith - Six Sigma Quality Viterbi, Jacobs, Gilhousen - Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Cellular Systems Tsumura, Koezuka, Ando - Organic Thin Film Transistor (OTFT) 1987 Tang, van Slyke - Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) 1988 SCE - 40MWH Lead Acid Load Levelling Battery Fan, Tai, Muller - Micro-Scale Electrostatic Motor, Micro-Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) Fert, Grünberg GMR Giant Magneto Resistance Chiariglione - Moving Pictures Experts Group (MPEG) Lechleider, Cioffi - Broadband Communications, ADSL 1989 Berners-Lee - World Wide Web (WWW), HTML, HTTP, URL, Browser Pons, Fleischmann - Cold Nuclear Fusion Brown - Betavoltaic Nuclear Battery Regenesys - Flow Battery Bates - Thin Film Battery Boeing - Stacked Semiconductor Photovoltaic Cell Commercial Exploitation of the Internet, Email Services 1990 Emtage - Internet Search Engine Sony - Lithium Secondary Cells Introduction Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries Commercialisation 1990's New Market Demands 1991 Iijima - Carbon Nanotubes, Buckytubes Grätzel - Photoelectrochemical Cell Zimmermann - PGP Public Key Encryption 1992 Kordesch - Rechargeable Alkaline Manganese Battery 1993 Cooper - Zinc Air Batteries, Mechanical Charging 1994 Bellcore - Lithium Polymer Cells Power Net - 42 Volt Automotive Battery Standard Rydbeck, Ullman Bluetooth Wireless Interface 1995 Bhatt and others - Universal Serial Bus (USB) Pouch Cell Duracell, Intel - Smart Battery, SMBus Energizer - On-Cell Fuel Gauge or Battery Tester Bayliss - Clockwork Battery 1996 BMW - Flywheel Energy Storage Accident Patterson - Power Cells Poehler, Searson - All Plastic Battery Brauschweig University - Solar Powered Aeroplane 1997 Hayes, Hills - Wireless LANs, Wi-Fi Photovoltaic Modules Production 1998 NGK - 48MWH Sodium Sulphur Load Levelling Battery CODATA - Readjusts Physical Constants 2000 Mills - Hydrino Hydride Battery Tripathy - Flexible Polymer Solar Panels 2000's Market Trends 2001 Smalley - Nanowires 2002 Nanomaterials ORNL - Thin Film Batteries 2003 Geim, Novoselov - Graphene Teeters, Korzhova, Fisher - Nanobattery Zettl - Nano-Scale Electrostatic Motor, Nano-Electromechanical Systems(NEMS) University of San Diego - "Smart Dust", Nano Robots, Nano Batteries Regenesys - Cancelled GVEA - 40 Megawatt Battery Battery Sales Volumes Partanen - Rechargeable Aluminium Air Battery 2004 Toshiba - Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Intel - Itanium 2 Processor 2005 Ki Bang Lee - Urine Battery Satoh - Organic Radical Battery Armstrong - Biofuel Cell van Hoof - Thermo-electric Generator Using Body Heat 2006 Kassakian, Schindall, Signorelli - Enhanced Double Layer Capacitors, Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes 2007 Jobs, Ive - Smartphone Internet Capable Phone Hatazawa, Kano - Sugar Battery (Biofuel Cell) 2008 Johnson - JTEC Battery (Johnson Thermoelectric Energy Conversion) System CERN, Evans - Large Hadron Collider 2011 Hung, Hsu, Lin - Data Storage on DNA 2012 Church, Kosuri DNA Data Storage Device CERN - Higgs Boson Confirmed Sadoway, Bradwell - Liquid Metal Battery 2013 Nuckolls, Teller, Kidder, Dunne, Hurricane, Moses Inertial Confinement Nuclear Fusion 2015 Battery Futures???

The Shroud of Turin, shown at right, is a rectangular sheet of linen that bares the image of a naked man, approximately 5 10 (178cm) tall.

The man has obviously been crucified, with horrendous wounds to the wrists and feet.

as “an increase in the average temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere,” either by “human industry and agriculture” or by natural causes like the Earth has “experienced numerous” times “through its history.”[1] * Some writers use the phrases “global warming” and “climate change” to mean temperature changes strictly caused by human activity.[2] [3] [4] Other writers use adjectives such as “man-made” and “anthropogenic” to distinguish between human and non-human causes.[5] [6] (“Anthropogenic” means “of human origin,”[7] and “AGW” stands for “anthropogenic global warming.”[8]) * Just Facts’ Standards of Credibility require the use of “language that is precise and unambiguous.” Hence, when human causes are stated or implied, this research uses terms like “man-made” and “human-induced.” * The greenhouse effect is a warming effect caused by certain gases that retain heat from sunlight.[9] Without such gases, the average surface temperature of the Earth would be below freezing, and as explained by the , “life, as we know it, would not exist.”[10] The global warming debate is centered upon whether added greenhouse gases released by human activity will overheat the Earth and cause harmful effects.[11] * Human activities currently release about 37 billion metric tons of CO2 per year, which equates to about 5% of natural CO2 emissions.

Natural processes absorb the equivalent of all natural emissions plus about 57% of man-made emissions, leaving an additional 16 billion metric tons of CO2 in the atmosphere each year.[36] † In permafrost regions, perennial snow accumulations trap air bubbles that leave records of past airborne CO2 concentrations,[38] [39] [40] and because regional CO2 concentrations vary by less than 10 parts per million over the Earth, these local records are globally representative.[41] [42] * Instruments located on satellites can measure certain properties of oxygen that vary with temperature.

"Climate change and offsetting carbon dioxide emissions are high priorities for the Turin Winter Games, especially as winter sports and climate change are closely interrelated," says Ugo Pretato, head of environmental programmes at the Games.

So far, environmental groups are cautiously optimistic that the Games' organisers will achieve their goal.

principle of carbon dating-38

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The spectre of global warming, which has already pretty much seen off the Scottish ski industry, is now stalking the Alps. Archimedes - Theory of Machines, Military Machines, Water Pump, Worm Gear, Compound Pulley, Calculation of π, Areas and Volumes, Limits 250 B.